Kidney stones develop through the crystallization of certain materials. Mostly, calcium oxalate stone is observed followed by others: calcium phosphate, uric acid stones and others. Those stones may remain silent in kidney, grow in size or move from kidney to ureters (channels between kidney and bladder).
Men are more prone to developing stones compared to women (3:1). Kidney stones may be present in different regions and climates of the world. Especially hot climate and fluid loss may increase the incidence of such stones. Diet may be a predisposing factor for the development of certain stones.
It is complicated to provide a clear answer as to the risk group and reasons for stone formation. Many factors may predispose crystallization inside the kidney and that leads to stone formation.
The most evident factor is the variability of water content in the body. In the presence of fluid loss, chemicals inside urine will precipitate and easily form stones. On the other hand, sufficient water consumption will prevent kidney stone formation.
Metabolic diseases, diet and metabolism are various factors for stone formation.
A kidney stone may present with severe pain and even with no pain. Ureter may be obstructed with a stone fragment or a whole stone while this will be presented with severe pain.
Pain may be temporary and it is difficult to guess which stone is more prone to present itself with more pain. Generally, pain is around lower waist region, on the side of stone and sometimes even around abdomen.
The patient may describe pain as the worst one in his/her life. Strong analgesics may decrease the sense of pain, but usually do not bring total relief of pain. After pain relief, it is advised to see a urologist as soon as possible.